Issue/Heft 20 (2021)
© AFSV; Waldökologie, Landschaftsforschung und Naturschutz (Forest Ecology, Landscape Research and Nature Conservation) - Heft 20, 2021
>> Heftdeckel (pdf 560 K)
Impressum und Inhaltsverzeichnis
>> Impressum und Inhaltsangabe (pdf 1036 K)
KOLB, E., GÖTTLEIN, A.: Die Herkunft des Begriffs TANGEL, seine derzeitige Definition und eine Möglichkeit zu dessen Weiterentwicklung
(The origin of the term TANGEL, its current definition and a possibility for its further development)
Tangelhumus - thick layers of humus on carbonate rocks - we know almost exclusively from the Alps. Due to different soil classification systems, Tangel is not understood in the same way everywhere, respectively comparable forms of humus are given different names. The increasing importance of being able to communicate and work across borders makes it necessary either to standardize terms or at least to understand what others understand by them. This article is therefore divided into three parts. First, older works dealing with tangel or mighty humus deposits in the Alps have been evaluated and the national terms contained therein have been explained comparatively. Thus, the first descriptions of thick humus layers by Sendtner date back to 1854. In the second part, we comparatively present the tangel definitions of the national classification systems used in the Alpine region, as well as the proposal of the European Humus Research Group, which was elaborated in the years 2003 to 2018, with the aim to make proposals for a harmonization of humus form definitions in Europe. In the third part, we address important aspects for the further development of the definition of Tangelhumus, from the authors’ point of view. This aspect takes into account the potential genesis of tangel and thus makes the small-scale coexistence of these humus layers and mineral soil understandable. Also, the clear separation of O/C soils (humus over parent rock) and A/C soils (mineral soil over parent rock), which in many classifications separates genetically closely related soils at a high classification level, is partially abandoned in this proposal to facilitate understanding of typical soil associations in the upper forested stage of the Alps. Nevertheless, the definitions allow a clear distinction from moder-, mor- and amphi-humus forms. Furthermore, it is discussed whether Tangel occur exclusively on carbonate rocks or can also occur on silicate rocks. For this purpose, current research results are presented, which pursued the question, on which rocks in Bavaria outside the Alps thick humus layers occur and to what extent they are similar to Tangelhumus or differ from it.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 2.2 M; Heft 20-Aufsatz 4; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-02040)
STARK, H., GÄRTNER, S., SUCK, R., REIF, A.: Bewertung der Naturnähe der Baumartenzusammensetzung von Wäldern in Deutschland - Grenzen und Potentiale
(Evaluation of the naturalness of the tree species composition of forests in Germany – limits and potentials)
Naturalness is an important criterion for evaluating forests in nature conservation and forest management. The degree of naturalness is derived from a comparison between the actual state of an ecosystem with its potential natural state, which acts as reference. This paper compares different methodological approaches to evaluate the naturalness of the tree species composition of forests in Germany, using the data of the Third German National Forest Inventory (NFI3). Our goal was to analyze the naturalness evaluation methodology as implemented within the German National Forest Inventory. Depending on the evaluation methodology the results can vary greatly driven by fundamental differences among the references and the methodology used for evaluation. (1) One fundamental difference between the two available nation-wide reference systems was tree species composition („natural forest types“ of NFI3, „basic units“ from the map of the potential natural vegetation of Germany). Differences were found regarding the number of tree species in the reference, their ecological niches, and the role of pioneer tree species. (2) Depending on the definition of the evaluation scales results of the naturalness evaluation differed greatly. This was particularly attributed to the number scale levels, and the thresholds between them, and the variables that were included to define the scales. This shows how susceptible the method for assessing naturalness of tree species composition in Germany’s national forest inventory is, where the weak points are and how they can be made more comprehensible and robust.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 831 K; Heft 20-Aufsatz 3; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-02039 )
|Naturnähe-Indikatoren und Naturwaldreservats-Forschung
HEINRICHS, S.; DÖLLE, M., BALCAR, P., SCHMIDT, W.: Feuchtwälder im Bienwald (Rheinland-Pfalz): Eine Zukunft ohne Stieleiche? - Die Vegetation in zwei Naturwaldreservaten und ihren bewirtschafteten Vergleichsbeständen
(Wet forests of the Bienwald (Rhineland-Palatinate): A future without pedunculate oak? - The vegetation in two strict forest reserves and a comparison to managed forests)
The two strict forest reserves (SFR) Mörderhäufel and Stuttpferch were established in the Bienwald/Rhineland-Palatinate already in the 1960s and 70s. Depending on the strongly fluctuating groundwater level in this area, a mosaic of beech-oak and oak-beech forests on sites far from groundwater, oak-hornbeam forests on sites near groundwater, and alder forests on permanently wet sites are present. In the early 1990s, gypsy moth calamities in the SFRs resulted in the loss of oaks and changes in the species composition of the tree and herb layer. Representative core areas were established in both SFR in areas with oak-hornbeam forests, half of which were fenced to document vegetation dynamics without game influence. Here, the vegetation composition in these core areas 50 to 60 years after establishment and ca. 25 years after the insect calamities was investigated. We also surveyed the vegetation in near-natural adjacent managed stands, where comparably sized but unfenced core areas were established in 2011. Results show clear site differences between the plot types (Mörderhäufel vs. Stuttpferch, fenced vs. unfenced, unmanaged vs. managed) with a higher proportion of moisture-indicating plant species in the SFR Stuttpferch compared to the SFR Möderhäufel. The SFR Stuttpferch was also more affected by the calamities with a dieback of oak promoting tree species such as hornbeam and fluttering elm. A subsequent higher litter quality and light availability on the ground promoted a denser and more species-rich shrub and herb layer compared to the SFR Mörderhäufel. In both SFR, beech is spreading, while oak is not rejuvenating successfully. More drought events in the future e.g., induced by lower precipitation and higher temperatures due to climate change are likely to increase the competitive strength of beech on these wet sites, while deer browsing, and the higher shade tolerance of hornbeam and beech will prevent the successful regeneration of oak. Oak also does not rejuvenate naturally in the managed forests, so large-scale plantings and fencing must be considered for its preservation in the Bienwald. This also questions the naturalness of oak forests in the study area under current site conditions.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 3.0 M; Heft 20-Aufsatz 5; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-02057)
|Ökosystemrenaturierung und nachhaltiges Management
ZERBE, S., OTT, K.: Pesticides, soil removal, and fire for the restoration of ecosystems? A call for ethical standards in ecosystem restoration
(Pestizide, Bodenabtrag und Feuer zur Renaturierung von Ökosystemen? Ein Plädoyer für ethische Standards bei der Ökosystemrenaturierung)
The restoration of degraded ecosystems has become a challenge for our societies in the 21st century. In order to assist the recovery of degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems towards the enhanced provision of ecosystem services, a broad set of measures are nowadays applied, which range from doing nothing up to a heavy impact with technological measures. With the application of those measures that, in other cases, strongly contributed and contribute to ecosystem degradation worldwide (e. g. the application of pesticides) it seems as if the restoration targets have absolute priority, no matter what measure applied to achieve them. Accordingly, we want to critically debate the application of certain measures by focusing on pesticide application, topsoil removal, and prescribed burning. We hereby assessed the ecological impact as well as the impact on humans by means of environmental ethics. It turns out that measures for the restoration of ecosystems have to undergo not only an ecological and socio-economic assessment but also have to be grounded on ethical considerations. Approaches such as, e. g. multi-criteria decision or ecological impact assessment provide tools for theory and practice of restoration. Based on our critical reflection, we suggest an implementation of environmental ethics into the definition and guiding objectives of ecosystem restoration.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 917 K; Heft 20-Aufsatz 2; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-02022)
|Nachrichten aus der Arbeitsgemeinschaft (AFSV-News)
POMMER, U., NOACK, M., RÜFFER, O.: 90. Geburtstag von Professor Dr. habil. Gerhard Hofmann
>> Volltextversion (pdf 775 K; Heft 20-Aufsatz 1; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-02017)
>> Addendum (nachrichtlich) Nachruf auf Prof. Dr. habil. Gerhard Hofmann