Issue/Heft 9 (2010)
© AFSV; Waldökologie, Landschaftsforschung und Naturschutz (Forest Ecology, Landscape Research and Nature Conservation) - Heft 9, 2010
>> Heftdeckel (pdf 352 K)
Impressum und Inhaltsverzeichnis
>> Impressum und Inhaltsangabe (pdf 660 K)
|Heft 9||Vegetations- und Standortkunde||Seite 5-14||März 2010|
LITTERSKI, B., KÜSTNER, A., HAMPICKE, U.: Vegetations- und standortkundliche Untersuchungen in Sukzessionswäldern auf der Insel Usedom
(Vegetation and soil conditions of pre-forests on the isle of Usedom)
The vegetation and ecological conditions of five pre-forests on the island of Usedom (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern), developed on former fields through spontaneous succession, were investigated. The establishment of different successional forests under identical climatic conditions was caused mainly by soil conditions. Based on species groups and dominating trees, Vaccinium myrtillus-Pinus sylvestris-, Vaccinium myrtillus-Oxalis acetosella-Populus tremula-, Oxalis acetosella-Betula pendula- and Festuca gigantea-Acer pseudoplatanus-Pre-Forests were distinguished. The birch forest exhibits the best development among deciduous woodland species. Species of nutrient poor and acid conditions are rarer then species with preference to nutrient and base rich conditions and the pre-forests are characterized by different distribution of indicator species, as shown in an analysis of the ELLENBERG ecological indicator values. The sandy, moderatly moist soils are characterized by different soil reaction and nutrient gradients. Pre-Forests with deciduous trees show narrow C/N-relations and different pH values. In the pine pre-forests differences in nitrogen contents are reflected in the vegetation. The agricultural use ended between 1955 and 1970. The date of cessiation of agricultural use and the degree of nitrogen accumulation may be important for the ensuring course of succession. As shown in the investigation methods and results of forests site diagnostics are a main basis for characterization of successional forests. Anthropogenic changes if site conditions lead to different developments, which need continuously inspection of vegetation and site conditions in the middle European countryside.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 330 K; Heft 9-Aufsatz 3; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00931)
|Heft 9||Vegetations-Datenbanken||Seite 15-22||März 2010|
FONT, X., RODRÍGUEZ-ROJO M. P., ACEDO, C., BIURRUN, I., FERNÁNDEZ-GONZÁLES, F., LENCE, C., LOIDI, J., NINOT J. M.: SIVIM: an on-line database of Iberian and Macaronesian vegetation
(SIVIM – das Online Datenbank-System zur Vegetation der iberischen Halbinsel und der Makaronesischen Inseln)
SIVIM (Sistema de Información de la Vegetación Ibérica y Macaronésica) is an information system designed for capturing, hosting, editing, analyzing and outputting georeferenced plot data of Iberian and Macaronesian vegetation. It currently hosts 86,000 relevés, mainly from the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands, and will grow to 100,000 relevés in the near future. SIVIM has been conceived to offer direct and free on-line access to relevés, tables, as well as to floristic, syntaxonomical and bibliographical records. The system also offers on-line software for edition and analysis of vegetation data. The main characteristics of SIVIM are presented, and its particular technical solutions to typical data banking problems as well as its future objectives are briefly commented.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.0 M; Heft 9-Aufsatz 8; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de: 0041-afsv-00982)
|Heft 9||Kombinierte Methoden aus Modellierung, Messung und Geländearbeit||Seite 23-37||März 2010|
KOCH, B., WALENTOWSKI, H., DEES, M., SEITZ, R.: Untersuchung der Nutzungsmöglichkeiten von amtlichen Laserscannerdaten für den Wald-Forst-Bereich - Entwicklung von Methoden für forstliche Inventur- und Monitoringaufgaben im Rahmen der FFH Kartierung
(Investigations on the Use of Low Density Laser Scanner Data for Mapping of Forest Areas - Development of Methods for Forest Inventory and Monitoring Tasks in Respect to FFH Mapping)
The present article outlines the possible use of public Airborne Laserscanning (ALS) data, furnished by the Bavarian Land Survey Administration for the assessment, evaluation and monitoring of FFH areas (Special Areas of Conservation SAC). First of all, the different information levels of importance for a characterization of FFH areas are defined. On the basis of this definition, for each described information level the availability of information out of ALS data is tested. In this context, different methods of information assessment are investigated. FFH areas in the pre-alpine area of Bavaria, offering a maximum of ecological heterogeneity, have been used as test sites. The investigation included topographical structures like inclination of forest stands and the semi-automatic mapping of canyons and ditches. In the process of the assessment of forest structures, special emphasis was laid on the mapping of old-growth trees and gaps as well as on the detection of forest stand types, the percentage of deadwood and habitat trees. Whereas the detection of deadwood and habitat trees proved to be impossible using public ALS data of low point density, the assessment of stand types offered poor results. The use of ALS data for the assessment of topographic and forest structures however proved to be very successful.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.5 M; Heft 9-Aufsatz 1; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00910)
|Heft 9||Modellierung||Seite 39-48||März 2010|
RUDNER, M.: Habitateignungsmodelle auf der Grundlage von Expertenwissen – ein Vergleich von Fuzzy-Logik Ansätzen am Beispiel westmediterraner Zwergbinsenrasen
(Habitat suitability models based on expert knowledge – a comparison of fuzzy set approaches using the example of Western Mediterranean dwarf rush communities)
This study examines the ability of two fuzzy logic approaches to adequately describe the realised niche of a specific target taxon in Western Mediterranean dwarf rush communities (Isoeto-Nanojuncetea). In a strongly fuzzified approach, which required a large set of rules, all independent and dependent variables are coded as linguistic variables. This approach is compared to a different approach which defines habitat suitability through a membership function per taxon and independent variable. Both approaches yield acceptable results. Advantages and disadvantages of both fuzzy logic approaches are discussed. It is shown that this method is well suited for the description of realised niches and that the approach should be chosen depending on the question of the study. Knowledge based model building is a crucial step for the integration of rare taxa in landscape models.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 509 K; Heft 9-Aufsatz 7; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00972)
|Heft 9||Biodiversitäts-Forschung||Seite 49-63||März 2010|
BRADTKA, J., BÄSSLER, C., MÜLLER, J.: Baumbewohnende Flechten als Zeiger für Prozessschutz und ökologische Kontinuität im Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald
(Epiphytic lichens indicating process protection and ecological continuity in the Bavarian Forest National Park)
Lichens are one of the prominent taxonomical indicator groups for changes in forests. Within the course of the research project BIOKLIM, we sampled 125 epiphytic lichens, 5 lichenicolous fungi, and 1 non-lichenized ascomycete in wilding areas, managed areas, and relicts of old-growth forests along four transects in the Bavarian Forest National Park. Our analyses showed that old-growth relicts and wilding areas have a significantly higher diversity and a higher number of red-listed species than managed forests, demonstrating the importance of these areas for the protection and dispersal of endangered lichens and lichenicolous fungi. The rare and threatened lichenicolous fungi Chaenothecopsis viridialba, Sphinctrina anglica, and Sphinctrina turbinata and the critically threatened lichen Mycobilimbia sphaeroides were new records for the Bavarian Forest. The lichen-fungus Sphinctrina tubiformis, presumed extinct in Germany, was recovered in the old-growth relict Rachelseeurwald. The following species were classified as indicators of old, nearnatural forests of the Bavarian Forest: Lecanactis abietina, Pyrenula nitida, Micarea cinerea, Microcalicium disseminatum, Loxospora cismonica, and Thelotrema lepadinum. We propose management implications for the managed areas of montane and high montane forests in Central Europe.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 947 K; Heft 9-Aufsatz 4; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de: 0041-afsv-00948)
|Heft 9||Biodiversitäts-Forschung||Seite 65-78||März 2010|
RIEGER, A., SCHMIDBERGER, G., STELZ, V., MÜLLER, J. STRÄTZ, C.: Ökologische Analyse der Molluskenfauna im Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald
(Ecological analysis of molluscs in the Bavarian Forest National Park)
As part of the BIOKLIM Project, data was obtained for various groups of animals and plants, as well as for environmental factors. The following analysis concerns only the molluscs (Gastropoda, Bivalvia). Altitude, stand age, magnesium and pH values of soil were identified as main influencing variables for abundance of individuals, using quasi-Poisson models. The parameter "number of plant species" (VegRich) and management type also affect the species number. Individual species are influenced by very different factors, resulting partly from their highly specialized habitat requirements, so that their abundance can not always be described directly in terms of the measured and collated influencing variables. The mollusc-assemblages are determined most of all by altitude above sea level, temperature and light conditions (openness of canopy), as demonstrated using several different methods of statistical analysis.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 803 K; Heft 9-Aufsatz 5; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de: 0041-afsv-00952)
|Heft 9||Biodiversitäts-Forschung||Seite 79-93||März 2010|
LUTZE, G., SCHULTZ, A. WUNTKE, B. VOSS, M., KIESEL, J., WENKEL, K.-O.: Brutvogelausstattung der Agrarlandschaften Brandenburgs – zwischen Artenreichtum und Artenarmut
(Breeding birds survey in agrarian landscapes of Brandenburg – between species richness and poverty)
For the assessment of biodiversity in agrarian landscapes (here in case of breeding birds) an effective, random sampling based monitoring approach was developed. It was practically tested in the federal state of Brandenburg in the years 2005 and 2006. The number of species at 1 km2 observation sites ranged between 5 and 41 (mean 22.2) and the number of reveres ranged between 21 and 217 (mean 80.3) in the whole Brandenburg above both the years. The enormous variation shows a high potential of species diversity and population abundance on the one hand and extreme poverty on the other hand. The species inventory demonstrates a narrow relation to landscape structure. Methodical experience of this special bird monitoring approach can be also used for creating new survey approaches considering other ecological variables in order to verify the effect of agri-environmental measures as well as to develop new agri-environment programmes at field and landscape level. The approach has proved its usefulness concerning ecological results as well as technical and organizional flexibility.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 2.5 M; Heft 9-Aufsatz 6; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de: 0041-afsv-00963)
|Heft 9||Internationaler Naturschutz||Seite 95-100||März 2010|
LASCH, U., ZERBE, S., LENK, M.: Electrocution of raptors at power lines in Central Kazakhstan
(Stromtod von Greifvögeln an Hochspannungsleitungen in Zentral-Kasachstan)
Along three transects of medium voltage power lines in the steppe of Central Kazakhstan, surveys for bird casualties were carried out in summer 2006 in order to estimate the quantitative and qualitative impact of power lines on bird mortality in this area. In total, 409 dead birds of 34 different species were found. Raptors represented 44 % of the total (179 individuals, 10 species). Most of them died due to electrocution. The proportion of raptors strongly varied between early and late summer, the increase in August suggests that especially young birds are prone to electrocution. The density of raptor casualties varied from 0.1 to 7.6 birds per line km and month. Adverse effects of power lines on bird life could be avoided by changing the pole construction (use of suspended insulators) or protective measures (e. g. caps).
>> Volltextversion (pdf 357 K; Heft 9-Aufsatz 2; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de: 0041-afsv-00921)