Issue/Heft 18 (2019)
© AFSV; Waldökologie, Landschaftsforschung und Naturschutz (Forest Ecology, Landscape Research and Nature Conservation) - Heft 18, 2019
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Impressum und Inhaltsverzeichnis
>> Impressum und Inhaltsangabe (pdf 614 K)
|Heft 18||Data paper||Seite 5-13||Dezember 2019|
KOLB, E., MELLERT, K.H., GÖTTLEIN, A.: Nährstoffstatus naturnaher Böden in Europa
(Soil nutrient status of natural soils in Europe)
So far, a map summarizing the nutrient availability of natural soils in Europe is not available. Such a map is required e.g. for the prediction of vegetation changes due to anthropogenic depositions and climate change. In this project the soil map 1 : 1.000.000 of the European Soil Data Center (ESDAC) of the European Commission was used. For each soil mapping unit (SMU), the dominating FAO soil type was attributed to a ten-part nutrient classification system. In this expert-based classification, the soil types are ranked by the nutrient supply of the soil, in which the maximum plant growth is to be expected in the middle range (code number 4) where the nutrient supply is well balanced. In addition to the expected composition of the nutrient supply, the intensity of nutrient supply and typical deficiencies are the decisive criteria for the classification of soils. Thus, potential nutrient limits on carbonatic soils (code number 5 and 6) are separated from those on acid soils (code number 1 and 2). Another four classes were required to characterize soil types which are strongly dominated by one specific cation (code number 7), which are water-saturated (code numbers 8 and 9) or which are unrecognizable due to coverage by glaciers, waters, or cities. Since the nutrient supply of some soil types varies in a wide range, the classification of soils is not always clear. In such cases additional information on geology was used. For rendzinoid soils in mountains the altitude range derived from a DTM was used to distinguish between the more and less favorable subtypes. This map and the evaluation scheme presented was the basis for a macroecological study on the question of compensatory soil effects at the warm-dry distribution limit of European tree species (MELLERT et al. 2017).
>> Volltextversion (pdf 5.7 M; Heft 18-Aufsatz 1; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01811)
|Heft 18||Data paper||Seite 15-30||Dezember 2019|
KOLB, E., GÖTTLEIN, A.: Eine Substratklassifizierung für die Nördlichen Kalkalpen als Grundlage für eine forstliche Standortsbewertung
(A substrate classification for the Northern Limestone Alps as a basis for a forest site assessment)
Site maps for land use, especially for forestry, are complex compilations of pedological, topographical, climatic and vegetation information. Here, the pedological information is usually the limiting factor and often not available in sufficient spatial and content resolution. In none of the alpine countries soil maps are countrywide available. Where no pedological information is available, no site-specific maps can be created. Where pedological maps are available, they are not always comparable in their information, which makes cross-regional evaluation and use more difficult. The substrate classification presented here uses the comprehensive geological maps as a proxy in order to partially compensate for the lack of pedological information in this way. In addition to the presentation of the classification, their uses are presented. In this substrate classification, three parameters are evaluated, which are of great importance for potential plant growth. The geogenetic parameter describes the processing of the parent rock material, differing in particle sizes and sorting. The substrate chemical parameter characterizes the parent material, according to its carbonate content for carbonate rocks respectively to its base content for siliciclastic rocks. The class limits for carbonate levels of the individual classes do not always follow the geologically defined limit, but are based on the soil development series according to REHFUESS (1990), since the target is a proxy for the missing pedological data. The substrate physical parameter assesses the water holding capacity, evaluating mineral soil thickness, skeletal content and nFK on a rough scale. All rocks that are classified by the same three-parameter combinations represent a substrate type. The advantage of this substrate classification is that it is not hierarchical, which simplifies query capabilities and map display. The interpretation of the map and its possible uses are also shown in intersecting with other information such as terrain or vegetation information. Also, the limitations of the classification are discussed. As no information on an inventory level can be derived, the system is useful for regional and transnational planning.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 4.6 M; Heft 18-Aufsatz 5; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-0184x )
|Heft 18||Kombinierte Methoden aus Modellierung, Messung und Geländearbeit||Seite 31-51||Dezember 2019|
NICKEL, S., SCHRÖDER, W., VÖLKSEN, B.: Qualitätsprüfung der Karte aktueller naturnaher Ökosystemtypen Deutschlands und ihr Upscaling am Beispiel des Nationalparks Kellerwald-Edersee
(Quality assessment of the map of current near natural ecosystem types in Germany and their upscaling using the example of the Kellerwald-Edersee National Park)
This study aims to examine the map of current near natural ecosystem types (ANOEST) in Germany (1 : 500,000; JENSSEN et al. 2013, SCHRÖDER et al. 2015) and, respectively, the ANOEST map for the Kellerwald National Park (1 : 5,000) with regard to their data quality and reusability. In accordance with DIN EN ISO 19113 and DDGI 2007, the positional accuracy (absolute positional accuracy) and thematic accuracy (classification correctness) were quantitatively determined. For this purpose, a comparison was made with geometrical data of well-known positional accuracy such as ATKIS-DLM (Hesse) as well as with maps of biotopes and habitat types (Hesse), vegetation samplings from the Kellerwald National Park (permanent random sample inspection, own survey) and German-wide vegetation samplings from the W.I.E. database (since 1990). The map of ANOEST Germany has an absolute positional accuracy of ± 42.29 m (≈ ± 42 m). It has been classified correctly to approx. 30 %. A further approx. 35 % are ecologically similar to the existing forest ecosystem types (together 65 %). In a further approx. 15 %, the ecosystem types were correctly classified, but only appeared as non-dominant ecosystem types. Approximately 15 % occurred only as an ecologically similar ANOEST (together 30 %). 5 % of the spatial objects were mapped incorrectly. In the Kellerwald National Park (1 : 25,000) about 22 % of the ANOEST were classified correctly. Misclassifications on both scales were often due to wrong assignments to the altitude level (e.g., Eb-5n-C2 instead of D1-5n-C2) and, respectively, to the humus species (e.g., Eb-5n-D1 instead of Eb-5n-D1a). The main reason for misclassifications must be seen in high thematic differentiation of the ecosystem classification according to JENSSEN et al. (2013). Data on biotopes and habitat-types are more appropriate for a falsification than for a verification of ANOEST. However, the spatial information is valuable for comparisons with regard to the occurrence of ANOEST as the main or accompanying ecosystem type. The correctness of the classification can best be verified by vegetation samplings, but only at the site level. Vegetation samplings can also be used to increase the quality of the ANOEST, especially at the regional level (1 : 5,000 to 1 : 25,000). On this spatial scale, it is recommended, to use preferably the key for identifying forest ecosystems in Germany (SCHRÖDER et al. 2018, Bd. 3).
>> Volltextversion (pdf 4.3 M; Heft 18-Aufsatz 2; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01828)
|Heft 18||Kombinierte Methoden aus Modellierung, Messung und Geländearbeit||Seite 53-78||Dezember 2019|
JENSSEN, M., NICKEL, S., SCHRÖDER, W.: Referenzzustände von Ökosystemtypen und Möglichkeiten zusätzlicher biozönotischer Indikation des ökologischen Bodenzustands als Bestandteil der Ökosystemintegrität
(Reference states of ecosystem types and possibilities of additional biocenotical indication of ecological soil properties as part of ecosystem integrity)
Structures and functions of ecosystems and, subsequently, their services for human societies may be influenced by climate change and atmospheric deposition. JENSSEN et al. (2013) developed a spatially explicit evaluation system enabling the evaluation of ecosystems´ integrity. This methodology is based on a classification of forests. Based on six ecological functions, the methodology enables to compare the ecosystem type-specific integrity at different levels of ecological hierarchy for a reference state (1961 – 1990) with the further development of the forest ecosystem types as measured for the years 1991 – 2010 and as modelled for the period 2011 – 2070. The present study aimed at deepening the methodology and developing it into a practical system for assessing and mapping forest ecosystem integrity and services (SCHRÖDER et al. 2018). The objectives of this investigation were: 1. to quantify the reference conditions for a total of 61 forest ecosystem types, 2. to supplement the quantification of ecosystem integrity by information on soil biocenoses as yielded by soil monitoring and 3. by modelling chemical soil indicators and comparing the respective results with soil indicator values as derived by ELLENBERG et al. (1992, 2001).
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.8 M; Heft 18-Aufsatz 3; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01831)
|Heft 18||Naturnähe-Indikatoren und Naturwaldreservatsforschung||Seite 79-90||Dezember 2019|
KUDERNATSCH, T., WALENTOWSKI, H.; BERNHARDT-RÖMERMANN, M.: Wandel auf allen Ebenen - Vegetationsveränderungen im Eichen-Hainbuchenwald „Echinger Lohe“ bei München während der letzten drei Jahrzehnte
(Vegetation changes in the oak-hornbeam-forest “Echinger Lohe“ during the last three decades)
In the “Echinger Lohe”, a small and isolated forest island in the vicinity of Munich (Germany), a strict forest reserve was established in 1978. The Ga l i o - Ca r p i n e t u m oakhornbeam-forest was supposed to be a remnant of the (sub-)climax vegetation of the Northern Munich gravel plain. However, our new scientific results suggest, that its characteristic species composition depends rather on human impact resulting from traditional coppicing with standards and silvopasturing. To study the natural development of the forest, a transect consisting of 125 single permanent monitoring plots was established within the reserve in 1986. Vegetation surveys documenting the species composition at these plots were repeated in 1993, 1998 and 2003. In 2017 the latest vegetation survey was carried out to demonstrate the species turnover after 30 years of forest management abandonment. Remarkably, alterations were noticeable in all vegetation layers (herb-, shrub- and tree-layer). Most notably was the profound alteration of the tree species composition of the canopy. While the basal area of the subcanopy and understorey layer species maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) increased, the basal area of the overstorey layer species oak (Quercus robur) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) declined. In the shrub layer a decline in species richness and coverage was observed. Some species, e.g. oak, which is particularly significant for the community completeness and habitat structure of the Ga l i o - Ca r p i n e t u m oak-hornbeam forest, were no longer detected in the shrub layer at the sampling plots. The herb layer responded by an increase of indicator species for moderate acidity and high nitrogen availability (`winners´) on the one hand, and a decline of indicator species for high light availability, warmth, and high base saturation (`losers´) on the other hand. Furthermore a spatial expansion of the vegetation units showing a comparatively high nitrogen supply was found. The driving factors for
>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.8 M; Heft 18-Aufsatz 4; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01847)