Issue/Heft 5 (2007)
© AFSV; Waldökologie-Online - Heft 5, 2007 (urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00053)
>> Heftdeckel (pdf 469 K)
Impressum und Inhaltsverzeichnis
>> Impressum und Inhaltsangabe (pdf 323K)
ILLE, D., SCHMIDT, P.A.: Zur Ausbreitung und Etablierung der Weymouth-Kiefer (Pinus strobus L.) im Nationalpark Sächsische Schweiz
(Invasion and establishment of White Pine (Pinus strobus L.) in the Saxon Switzerland National Park)
The ecosystem of the natural Scots Pine forests on sandstone outcrops in the National Park Saxon Switzerland is potentially endangered by the spreading of White Pine. The establishment and growth of regeneration are especially successful in open stands, preferably on oligotrophic soils. Biological and ecological qualities of White Pine facilitate its establishment: frequent fructification, high regeneration potential, wide dispersal of seeds and rapid growth. White Pine finds optimal growth conditions with respect to climate and site ecology in the National Park. First indications of local extensions in range are noticeable. With its competition potential, the tree species may also become established in near-natural and semi-natural stands of the National Park. Competition by White Pine and accumulation of its needles on the soil result in a decline in understorey and ground vegetation (herb and moss layers) in the pine forests on rocky ground. The effects of spreading would have irreversible consequences for the ecosystem. Methods of preventing this using different management strategies for a variety of developmental scenarios are discussed.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 390K; Heft 5-Aufsatz 1; Original paper; Language: Deutsch)
EWALD, J., BINNER, S.: Werkzeuge zur Bestimmung der Waldtypen im bayerischen Hochgebirge
(Tools for the identification of forest types in the Bavarian Alps)
Ecological forest types are an important reference for forest mangement and conservation planning. The forest types of the Bavarian Alps, a densely forested region with large areas protected under the European NATURA 2000 network, are units of uniform species composition and structure occurring under certain combinations of site attributes. The article delivers tools for the recognition, delimitation and mapping of these types at three conceptually integrated levels of detail and spatial resolution. Fine-scale site maps (1:10.000) have been drawn in several pilot field surveys based on dichotomous identification keys for 47 mapping units, one based chiefly on indicator plants (which are delivered in a structured list) and typical structures in mature forests, another one based solely on attributes of soil and relief applicable in more disturbed situations. A set of 24 aggregated forest types (groups of site mapping units) served as a reference for naturalness of forest composition in Germany's second nationwide forest inventory of 2001/02. Inventory teams applied a simple graphical decision scheme, assigning sample plots to forest types based on simple criteria of relief and soil alongside with few plant indicators. Annex I habitats of the European NATURA 2000 network are still more aggregated groups of forest types. Their occurrence in large protected areas can be mapped in a GIS based on geo-parameters derived from existing geological maps and digital elevation models, which are combined in a deterministic model summarising current knowledge on the site-related distribution of forest types. With the system of ecological forest types and tools for their identification at hand, planners and managers can choose the set of methods most suited to their actual requirements and resources. A typical planning procedure may start with a coarse-scale GIS product, and subsequently involve terrestrial checking and mapping for parcels requiring more detailed ecological information.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 890K; Heft 5-Aufsatz 2; Original paper; Language: Deutsch)
REIF, A., GAERTNER, S.: Die natürliche Verjüngung der laubabwerfenden Eichenarten Stieleiche (Quercus robur L.) und Traubeneiche (Quercus petraea Liebl.) - eine Literaturstudie mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Waldweide
(Natural regeneration of the deciduous oak species Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur L.) and Sessile Oak (Quercrus petraea Liebl.) – a literature review with focus on wood pasture)
Studies of historic forest uses and wood pastures allow the conclusion, that the regeneration of the central European deciduous oak species Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) and Sessile oak (Quercus petraea) is an episodic process. It must be assumed, that long-lasting phases without successful regeneration of young oaks change with phases of successful establishment of a new oak generation. A number of factors is influencing the regeneration of oaks. The literature mentions light supply; predation of acorns by rodents, wild pigs and other acorn eating animals; browsing pressure by wild and domestic animals; infection of leaves with the mildew fungus Microsphaera alphitoides; competition with ground vegetation; late frost; and water supply. All these factors are interrelated in a complex way. It seems, that germination and successful establishment of these oaks depend from an open canopy and a low ground vegetation. In cultural landscapes, the last can be facilitated through wood pasture. Browsing is tolerated by the young oaks, when light supply is high. Under browsing pressure, oaks on open sites are able to survive, forming "bonsai-like" dwarfed deeply rooting treelets. However, height growth only can start after the end of grazing. This can be achieved by temporal and spatial fluctuations of browsing pressure. In terms of their life form strategy, Quercus robur and Q. petraea can be classified as stress-tolerating pioneers. In many cultural landscapes today, optimal sites for a successful natural establishment of oaks, i.e., without silvicultural supporting measures, can be found only along forest edges, in hedges and shrubland, even under presence of browsing wildlife. Today, arguments of nature conservation and climate change recommend an increased effort to facilitate oak regeneration. For that, periods of grazing changing with periods of succession can be a successful approach, which was well known in the past, but is nearly forgotten today.
>> Volltextversion (pdf 3.8M; Heft 5-Aufsatz 3; Original paper; Language: Deutsch)
|Nachrichten aus der Arbeitsgemeinschaft (AFSV-News)
Nachrichten aus der Arbeitsgemeinschaft
(1. Andrew Liston, der neue britische Sprachlektor von Waldökologie online; 2. Kersten Renneberg, die neue Layouterin von Waldökologie online; 3. Waldökologie online entwickelt sich weiter)
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(1. Erste gesamtdeutsche Darstellung der waldökologischen Naturräume; 2. Neuer Vegetationsatlas des Südschwarzwaldes; 3. Die Wälder und Gebüsche Österreichs)
>> Volltextversion (pdf 127K)