Issue/Heft 7 (2009)
© AFSV; Waldökologie, Landschaftsforschung und Naturschutz (Forest Ecology, Landscape Research and Nature Conservation) - Heft 7, 2009
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Impressum und Inhaltsverzeichnis
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SCHMIDT, W., STREIT, M.: Gibt es einen Zusammenhang zwischen der Diversität der Baumschicht und der Bodenvegetation? – Untersuchungen in Buchen-Edellaubholz-Mischwäldern des Göttinger Waldes (Süd-Niedersachsen, Deutschland)
(Is herb-layer diversity related to tree-layer diversity? Studies from beech – valuable broadleaf tree species mixed stands of the Göttingen Forest (southern Lower Saxony, Germany))
One goal of modern silvicultural management in Central Europe is the promotion of mixed stands instead of pure stands. On base-rich sites, this frequently implies the development of mixed stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and secondary broadleaved tree species, instead of pure beech stands. It is crucial to study the effects of these tree-layer diversity changes on herb-layer vegetation, since a speciesrich and productive herb-layer vegetation contributes significantly to forest ecosystem functioning. In deciduous stands within the Göttingen Forest (southern Lower Saxony), we investigate whether herb-layer diversity was related to canopy-layer diversity, and to ascertain possible causal mechanisms. On 63 plots (400 m² each), diversity and productivity of the herb layer were estimated using a tree layer species composition gradient from one tree species (beech) up to five tree species. Site factors pH and PAR-transmissivity were measured directly and the water and nitrogen supply were estimated indirectly by ELLENBERG indicator values. In the limestone beech forest (Hordelymo-Fagetum lathyretosum), the herb-layer vegetation of stands rich in canopy species was not more diverse than herb-layer vegetation of beech-dominated stands. Herb-layer biomass was positively correlated with herb-layer diversity, but was not promoted by tree-layer diversity. With increasing beech proportion, pH-value of the upper soil horizon decreased but without any effect on herb-layer diversity and productivity. Small-scale light and soil heterogeneity was insignificant for herb-layer diversity. Several herb-layer species were moderately correlated with tree-layer diversity and environmental factors. The results contrast with results from Hainich National Park, where herb-layer vegetation of deciduous forests rich in canopy species appeared to be more diverse than herb-layer vegetation of beech-dominated stands. Potential causes for this contrasting result could stem from the studies methodology (e.g. plot selection), site homogeneity (especially the broad range of the cover of loess and clay content of the Hainich National Park soils), forest history and management, as well as the contribution of different secondary tree species (especially the influence of lime). Therefore, further observational and experimental studies are needed to improve our knowledge on the relationships of diversity and ecosystem functioning in forests.
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BÄSSLER, C., FÖRSTER, B., MONING, C., MÜLLER, J.: The BIOKLIM Project: Biodiversity Research between Climate Change and Wilding in a temperate montane forest – The conceptual framework
(Das BIOKLIM Projekt: Forschungen zu Biodiversität und Klimawandel und zu Biodiversität und Wildnisentwicklung im temperaten Bergwald - Vorstellung des konzeptionellen Rahmens)
To understand the rapid rate of change in global biodiversity, it is necessary to analyse the present condition of ecosystems and to elucidate relationships of species to their environment. The BIOKLIM Project (Biodiversity and Climate Change Project) is intended to close this gap in our knowledge of montane and high montane forests of Central European low mountain ranges, one of the most threatened mixed montane systems worldwide. The Bavarian Forest National Park is characterised by its altitude range of ca. 800 m and a strongly developed gradient of forest structure. Relicts of old growth forests (areas of former local nature reserves) and dead stands, mostly killed by bark beetles, are accompanied by widely varying levels of woody debris and light. The gradients comprise a wide range of abiotic and forest structure factors, making the study area well suited for a multidisciplinary investigation of biodiversity. Unconstrained ordination (CA) of six taxa (vascular plants, wood inhabiting fungi, birds, carabids, spiders and molluscs) indicate the altitudinal gradient to be the main driver for distribution patterns of species assemblages. Objectives, structure, study design and data sampling of the BIOKLIM Project are described in detail. We set up 293 sampling plots along four main straight transects following the altitudinal gradient. All abiotic and stand structure data regarded as relevant are available for each plot. Vascular plants, wood inhabiting fungi and birds were sampled or mapped on all 293 plots. For the other 22 investigated taxa we used subsamples pre-stratified according to the sampling methods. The necessity of dealing with spatial autocorrelation, arising from sampling along linear transects, is described. Finally, study approach of our biodiversity project is compared with others involving altitudinal gradients. Worldwide, only a few multidisciplinary biodiversity studies have been previously conducted on long altitudinal gradients. However, in most cases sampling techniques were similar to ours, which allows comparison of results between continents.
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HORNSCHUCH, F., RIEK, W.: Bodenheterogenität als Indikator von Naturnähe? 1. Bewertung der Natürlichkeit anhand verschiedener Kompartimente und Diversitätsebenen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Bodens (Literaturstudie)
(Soil heterogeinity as an indicator of naturalness? 1. Evaluation of naturalness on different compartments and levels of diversity, especially in regard to soil (Review article))
This paper gives a review of studies in which biotic and abiotic ecosystem properties are used to assess naturalness and the degree of hemeroby, respectively. In this context especially the suitability of soil properties as an indicator of naturalness is examined. Most of the existing approaches focus on the actual conditions of ecosystem compartments and their correlations (naturalness s. l.; hemeroby). On the other hand the analysis of soil properties is suitable for estimating naturalness especially in historical perspective (naturalness s. str.). In connection with the multi-level biodiversity concept of WHITTAKER (1972) the question was posed, whether (i) the occurrence of specific properties (presence of properties), (ii) the intensity, amount, abundance (intensity of properties), (iii) the variability of parameters (a-diversity) and (iv) the small-scale heterogeneity and the dispersion of properties respectively (ß-diversity) are suitable criteria to assess the ecosystem naturalness in view of various compartments. The genetic variability of principle tree species can be used as an indicator of naturalness and autochthony of forest stands, provided that population biology is considered. There exist some zoological and fungual indicator species of virgin forests. The number of biological species (a-diversity) is not suitable to indicate naturalness; however an aggregated dispersion (= overdispersion) of plants, animals and fungies (ß-diversity) within the ecosystem is a criterion of low hemeroby. In view of the compartments stand structure and soil various parameters of different hierarchical levels can be used to determine naturalness. The various causes of soil diversity and heterogeneity and their relation to naturalness and hemeroby are explained.
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HORNSCHUCH, F., RIEK, W.: Bodenheterogenität als Indikator von Naturnähe? 2. Biologische, strukturelle und bodenkundliche Diversität in Natur- und Wirtschaftswäldern Brandenburgs und Nordwest-Polens
(Soil heterogeinity as an indicator of naturalness? 2. Biological, structural and pedological diversity in natural and regularly managed beech, oak and pine stands in Brandenburg (Germany) and Northwest Poland)
In the second part of this paper research findings are presented which describe variability and spatial heterogeneity of stand and soil properties in six pure beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), oak (Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebl.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands (three natural and regularly managed forests, respectively). The hypothesis was tested that naturalness is connected with higher a- and ß-diversity concerning parameters of soil and other ecosystem compartments. A total of 9282 soil samples were analyzed and various soil parameters in 7 soil layers (0 – 5, 5 – 10, ..., 25 – 30, 30 – 40 cm) were investigated using statistical and geostatistical methods. Furthermore the diversity of ground vegetation as well as stand structural and soil faunistical (Lumbricidae) properties was examined. Various indices to characterize stand structure, the rooting structure and the variability of the forest ground vegetation and earthworms, respectively, were calculated. Stand parameters and ground vegetation indicated more (bio-)diversity in the natural forests than in the regularly managed forests with corresponding tree species. In the natural forests generally higher variabilities and ranges of the soil parameters pH-value, effective cation exchange capacity (CECeff) and base saturation occurred. The same could be found out for humus, C- and N-content in the examined beech and oak stands, but not in the pine stands. The variability and autocorrelation of pedogenous properties (development of organic layer and soil horizons) give some inconsistent differences between natural and regularly managed forests. It was tried to find relations between the autocorrelation lengths of various soil properties as an expression of small-scale spatial soil pattern and ecological stand characteristics depending on hemeroby. The influences of the mean tree distance on pH-values and base saturation as well as the role of the rooting structure and local differing litter fall for the accumulation of humus, C and N are discussed. This paper is a first approach to describe soil variability and heterogeneity (small-scale soil pattern) as an indicator for naturalness. It is recommended to validate the presented results by further geostatistical analyses of spatial soil data of different stand types and by optimized sampling design.
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SUCCOW, M.: In ehrendem Gedenken an Dietrich Kopp
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