Issue/Heft 6 (2008)

© AFSV; Waldökologie, Landschaftsforschung und Naturschutz (Forest Ecology, Landscape Research and Nature Conservation) - Heft 6, 2008

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Impressum und Inhaltsverzeichnis

>> Impressum und Inhaltsangabe (pdf 276K)

Heft 6 Forstliche Standortskunde Seite 5-42 August 2008

ALTERMANN, M., JÄGER, K.-D., KOPP, D. †, KOWALKOWSKI, A., KÜHN, D., SCHWANEKE, W.: Zur Kennzeichnung und Gliederung von periglaziär bedingten Differenzierungen in der Pedosphäre

(On characteristics and subdivision of pedospheric differentiations due to previous periglacial conditions)

Below the actual surface a depth of a few decimetres (as a rule 1...2 m) has been modified decisively by the periglacial conditions of the last glacial period (Weichselian respectively Wuermian). The characteristics as well as the subdivision of the active layer of permafrost soils have been shaped by processes of cryoclastics, cryotranslocation, cryoperstruction and cryopedogenesis, each of them subdivided by particular sub processes. During the last decades a lot of investigations and discussions have been addressed to these phenomena of the pedosphere, but, however, different authors have turned their attention and considerations to different aspects of the complex interplay. Different concepts have accentuated different aspects of profile subdivision: A concept of covers (in German "Decken") has been based mainly on processes of cryotranslocation. On the other hand a concept of zones has been deduced mainly from processes of cryoperstruction and cryopedogenesis. The main difference of both these concepts consists in the basic criteria: The zone concept interprets any sedimentary differentiation of substrates as secondary criteria. This concept concedes equivalent zones in differing materials as well as different zones in equivalent materials. On the other hand the cover concept evaluates a dominating role of the sedimentary processes for the vertical substrate subdivision nevertheless conceding an essential share of sub processes belonging to the cryoperstruction for the synsedimentary or postsedimentary rearrangement of covers under periglacial conditions. This includes the permissiveness of an additional vertical subdivision of the respective cover. In Germany soil mapping is an official task of federal and regional geological institutions (Landesämter respectively Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe). Their activities on this matter are subdued to official instructions (in German: Kartieranleitung) applying a vertical subdivision of the sub superficial range by "layers" (in German "Lagen"). The definition and differentiation of layers considers the process of cryotranslocation as well as several (but not all) sub processes of cryoperstruction whereas other sub processes sharing the cryoperstruction are not included by the definition of layers. In particular this lack concerns the sub processes of cryohomognisation and cryolithotropy. Moreover, the definition of layers does not deal with the processes and results of cryopedogenesis regardless of the frequent connection with consequences of cryoperstruction [l.e. of horizons and zones]. Frequently, not any of distinct types, principles, or criteria of profile subdivision is applicable. Consequently, no regional or spatial limitation of distinct periglacial phenomena are recognizable.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 2.0 M; Heft 6-Aufsatz 1; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00610)

Heft 6 Forstliche Standortskunde Seite 43-60 August 2008

MELLERT, K. H., KÖLLING, C., RÜCKER, G., SCHUBERT, A.: Kleinräumige Variabilität von Waldboden-Dauerbeobachtungsfl ächen in Bayern – Ein Beitrag zur Unsicherheitsabschätzung der BZE II –

(Small scale variation at Bavarian soil monitoring sites – A contribution to estimate the uncertainty of the German Level-I Monitoring of soils (BZE II))

Data from the Bavarian forest soil monitoring programme (Bodendauerbeobachtungsfl ächen, BDF) were used to estimate the effect of smale scale variation on the uncertainty of soil characteristics and to evaluate a possible relation between spatial charactistics of soils and site conditions. We conducted a meta analysis of geostatistical parameters derived from 33 BDF sites. Within the BDF program 18 samples were taken at each site in an 18 x 18 m cross transect at minimum distance of 3 m. The data set involved Corg- and Ntot- concentrations and pools as well as the C/N-ratio, effective cation exchange capacity (CEC), base saturation (BS), pH and coarse soil fraction (> 2 mm). A total of 3780 records per soil parameter were used to calculate the skewness, the coeffi cient of variation (VK), Moran's I and the portion of spatially structured variance in the data. Observed spatial patterns of soil paramters could not clearly be related to site conditions. However, total variance of some parameters tended to decrease with incresing clay content and the level of variation (VK) of the studied soil parameters differed signifi cantly. The ranking of parameters with respect to variation is (in ascending order): pH, C/N-ratio, C and N-concentration, BS und CEC, C- and N-pools. The results of this uncertainty estimation serve as an input to the error budget of the German forest soils survey (Level I monitoring; BZE II) and were used to estimate detectable soil changes within the framework of this program.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 650K; Heft 6-Aufsatz 2; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00627)

Heft 6 Naturnähe-Indikatoren Seite 63-76 August 2008

REIF, A., WALENTOWSKI, H.: The assessment of naturalness and its role for nature conservation and forestry in Europe

(Die Bewertung von Naturnähe und ihre Rolle für Naturschutz und Forstwirtschaft in Europa)

Naturalness is one of the most important criteria in nature conservation. This paper examines the fundamental concepts underlying the definition and assessment of naturalness. Its role in nature conservation and forest management under conditions of global change is also discussed. The degree of naturalness may be defined in ordinal classes. The "static" concept of the potential natural vegetation (pnV), developed in the 1950ies, is mostly used as the reference state. In other cases, its reversed concept, the hemeroby (degree of articifiality) is assessed, based on the intensity and frequency of human impacts. Since the 1970ies, more attention has been given to natural dynamics than in earlier approaches, e.g. in forest succession models. At the end of the 1980ies, the previous importance was increasingly stressed of natural browsing by large herbivores and the role of predators. These large herbivors are extinct today in most cultural European landscapes. It is assumed, that they open up the canopy, and create park-like forest structures which contain a diversity of habitats for other types of organism (birds, insects). Changed and permanently changing environments and altering patterns of competition between species continue to modify natural processes today. Some of the more conspicuous effects are the extinction of native species and immigration of species to new regions. Long-lived ecosystems like forests are however not able to adapt quickly to such changes and may be unable to find a new balance with the environment. Today, such changes occur very rapidly, and are reducing the original naturalness of ecosystems. Because of this, the criterion "naturalness" must be downweighted. Conversely, more importance should be attached to other criteria: particularly originality (= original naturalness) and restorability. Forestry is contributing to this accelerated change of biocoenoses by increasing disturbances and introducing exotic tree species. Naturalisation of some exotic tree species modifies the natural processes and creates a "new allochthonous naturalness". Because of this, forest planning should try to preserve or restore stands with attributes of the "original forest". Exotic species should not be planted, or only in a very restricted way. Key words: naturalness, hemeroby, originality, human impacts, global change, forestry, nature conservation.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 2.6M; Heft 6-Aufsatz 3; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00631)

Heft 6 Nachrichten aus der Arbeitsgemeinschaft (AFSV-News) Seite 77-78 August 2008

EWALD, J., PEPPLER-LISBACH; C., KLEYER, M..: 7. Workshop der Arbeitsgruppe Vegetationsdatenbanken zum Thema „Plant-Trait-Environment-Linkages" in Oldenburg

7th Workshop of the German Working Group on Vegetation Databanks on „Plant-Trait-Environment" in Oldenburg, Germany

The German Working Group on Vegetation Databanks has held annual meetings since 2002 with financial support by the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. Ca. 215 members are regularly informed through a mailing-list. The 2008 meeting was hosted by University of Oldenburg's Landscape Ecology Group and was attended by 72 participants from 15 countries. Software demonstrations of vegetation databanks Turboveg and VegetWeb as well as plant trait databanks LEDA and BiolFlor opened the workshop. There were lecture sessions on trait databanks, recalibration of ecological indicator values and new developments in the field of vegetation databanks. Working groups were devoted to an initiative to build a meta-databank of existing vegetation databanks in Germany and to mathematical modelling of species habitats. In 2009 the 8th workshop will be held on "Vegetation Databanks and Biodindication" at the University of Greifswald.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 264 K; Heft 6-Aufsatz 4; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00643)