Issue/Heft 2 (2005)

© AFSV; Waldökologie-Online - Heft 2, 2005 (urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00025)

>> Heftdeckel (pdf 102 K)

Impressum und Inhaltsverzeichnis

>> Impressum und Inhaltsangabe (pdf 403 K)

Heft 2 Stoffhaushalt und Grundwasserschutz Seite 4-24 Oktober 2005

MELLERT, K.-H., GENSIOR, A., GÖTTLEIN, A., KÖLLING, C.: Risiko erhöhter Nitratkonzentrationen unter Wald in Bayern- Regionalisierung von Inventurergebnissen aus dem Raster des Level I

(Risk of elevated nitrate concentrations below forest in Bavaria - Regionalization of inventory results derived from the level I grid)

Nitrogen saturation due to sustained high N depositions is presently one of the most important impairments of nutrient cycling in forests of Central Europe. Because of the high importance of this process for the forests, streams and groundwater a country-wide nitrate inventory was performed to identify factors and regions with a high risk of elevated nitrogen concentrations below the main rooting zone of forest soils. The results of the nitrate inventory shows that obviously most of the forests are still able to retain most of the deposited nitrogen. On the other hand the investigation revealed high nitrate concentrations below many forests. The threshold for drinking water was exceeded in 7.5 % of the stands (n=29). High deposition of Ammonium and low precipitation were significantly associated with high nitrate concentrations. Also properties of the site and the stand influenced the risk of nitrate leaching significantly. Scots pine forests currently are at low risk of nitrate leaching, especially on sites dominated by sand or clay. While disturbances, Norway spruce stands and shallow calcareous as soon as non terrestrial soils infer a high risk of elevated nitrate concentrations. Using a regionalisation model based on logistic regression a map was developed serving as an operational tool for the Bavarian Forest Service.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 713K; Heft 2-Aufsatz 1; Original paper; Language: Deutsch)

Heft 2 Stoffhaushalt und Grundwasserschutz Seite 25-35 Oktober 2005

MELLERT, K.-H., BRENDEL, J., GÖTTLEIN, A., KÖLLING, C., RÜCKER, G.: Risiko erhöhter Nitratkonzentrationen unter Wäldern im Raum München - Regionalisierung auf der Basis von Satellitendaten und genesteter Stichproben

(Risk of elevated nitrate concentrations below forest in the region of Munich (South Bavaria) - Regionalization at the basis of remote sensing data and nested samples)

A nested model design at two different spatial scales is presented to predict the risk of elevated nitrate concentrations below the main rooting zone of forests in the region of Munich. The procedure combines a logistic regression on the Bavarian scale with a general linear model on the regional scale in an area around Munich in South Bavaria. The residuals of the Bavarian model (MELLERT et al. 2005c) are used as a link between both scales. This link of information on two spatial levels and the identification of predictors at different scales are the advantages of this approach, compared to a sole and independent model. At the Bavarian scale the ammonium deposition and the precipitation as well as the stand type and the site conditions predict the risk of elevated nitrate concentration. At the regional scale the degree of forestation and the stand age contribute considerably to explain the variance of the nitrate concentrations. Among the sources of nitrogen input into the forests especially regional ammonium emissions by agriculture seem to contribute to the occurrence of high nitrate concentrations. The central outcome of the study is a map indicating the risk of elevated nitrate concentrations. The results suggest that forestry could contribute to retard nitrogen saturation and nitrate leaching by conversion of spruce into mixed stands with a high percentage of broad-leaved species.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 590K; Heft 2-Aufsatz 2; Original paper; Language: Deutsch)

Heft 2 Stoffhaushalt und Grundwasserschutz Seite 36-43 Oktober 2005

MELLERT, K.-H., BERNHARDT-RÖMERMANN, M.: Helfen Ellenberg-Zeigerwerte bei der Abschätzung des Nitrataustragsrisikos in Wäldern?

(Are Ellenberg indicator values useful to predict the risk of nitrate leaching in forests?)

The data of the nitrate inventory in Bavaria allowed to examine whether nitrate leaching of forest soils can be predicted by ELLENBERG indicator values. Significant correlation between nitrate concentrations in the top- and the subsoil stressed the indicator potential of the ground vegetation. Significant relationships with modelled ammonium deposition and other deposition indicators reveal the causes of eutrophication of forests in the perspective of the ground vegetation. These relationships point once more to the agriculture as the most important source of nitrogen deposition in forests. Despite, the demonstrated indicator potential the explanation of the analysed regionalisation model could not be improved much by the inclusion of indicator value for nitrogen. Moreover, the limited basis of appropriate geodata hinders the use of ground vegetation within spatial modelling. Nevertheless, the observation of ground vegetation within the biogeochemical monitoring of forests is an important complementary tool. Comprehensive analyses of such approaches should be intensified. This would help to improve the understanding of consequences and dynamics within the process of nitrogen saturation.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 2.6M; Heft 2-Aufsatz 3; Original paper; Language: Deutsch)

Heft 2 Forstwirtschaft und Standortkartierung Seite 44-48 Oktober 2005

KREPEL, W.: Die polnische Methode der Forstlichen Standortskartierung

(The Procedure of Forest Site Mapping in Poland)

Since the beginnings in the nineteen hundred sixties the procedure of Forest Site Mapping in Poland was developed to a modern basis for manifold applications. In the face of huge challenges of today's forestry a solid Forest Site Mapping is of crucial importance. A sustainable forest management is increasingly orientated towards the natural biological resources of a landscape (taking advantage of primary production; minimizing tending interventions). A site-adapted biodiversity and a rich structural heterogeneity of the stands are accepted as indicators for sustainability under the risks of elevated nitrogen concentrations and of climatic change / global warming. The modern classification concept of the polish site survey is structured two-dimensionally: The first step considers the natural forest region and the altitudinal zone. The second step includes comprehensive analyses on local scale (due to soil water and soil nutrient regime, type of substrate, actual form of stocking, natural vegetation unit with its principal, secondary and pioneer trees). The basic unit for mapping is the so called site ecological forest type (siedliskowy lasu).

>> Volltextversion (pdf 305K; Heft 2-Aufsatz 4; Original paper; Language: Deutsch)

Heft 2 Forstwirtschaft und Standortkartierung Seite 49-58 Oktober 2005

SZYDLARSKI, M.: Forestry in Poland with special attention to the region of the Pomeranian Young Moraine

(Forstwirtschaft in Polen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Pommerschen Jungmoräne)

In the year 2004 the ASFV celebrated its 50th anniversary holding a conference in Suleczyno, Kartuzy. This event offered the possibility to give an actual overview of forest resources and forest functions in Poland. The excursions of the meeting focused on the fascinating, diversified forest landscape formed by the Pomeranian phase of the Baltic glaciation. The Kartuzy Forest District is situated in the heart of the Kashubian Lakeland and the moraine hills. The landscape is not only characterized by the natural occurrence of Baltic beech forests but also by high diversity of soils and meso- and microclimatic deviations providing habitats for rare plant species, including some plants typical of mountain regions. The tree species combination of the District is formed by pine, spruce, and beech. The oldest parts of the forests are legally protected as nature reserves.

>> Vollextversion (pdf 846K; Heft 2-Aufsatz 5; Original paper; Language: English)

Heft 2 Forstliche Vegetationskunde Seite 59-67 Oktober 2005

DOBLER, G.: Die Forstliche Vegetationskunde wissenschaftstheoretisch hinterfragt

(Forest Geobotany analysed from the Perspective of the Philosophy of Science)

The paper discusses different ways to describe the relationship between site-conditions and vegetation. The methods 'Causation' and 'Hempel-Oppenheim-Scheme' do not seem to be sufficient, since the actual plant-cover in an area is not only determined by natural laws but is also result of a historical process and of coincidence. Moreover, plants play an active role in site-vegetation relationships. Central European plant sociology distinguishes vegetation units. Deviations found in the field can be classified as atypical and are not necessarily contradictory to the classification unit. Therefore, the validity of a classification at least partly depends on the conventions between vegetation scientists. This fact, together with the danger of hypothesis-guided perception, can compromise the reality-conformity of plant sociology. The study presents and discusses the continuity-paradigm of Central European plant sociology and the discontinuity-paradigm of Anglo-American plant ecology. Both paradigms use different methods and approaches inhibiting internal falsification. The discontinuity-approach is based on the conviction that vegetation units establish organism-like forms of organisation. Considerations in the paper contradict this statement. Nevertheless, the classification of vegetation-units is important for practical application.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 981K; Heft 2-Aufsatz 6; Original paper; Language: Deutsch)

Heft 2 Forstliche Vegetationskunde Seite 68-89 Oktober 2005

WALENTOWSKI, H., FISCHER, M., Seitz, R.: Fir-dominated forests in Bavaria, Germany

(Weißtannenwald-Gesellschaften Bayerns (Deutschland))

The map of "Regional natural forest composition by main tree species" (WALENTOWSKI et al. 2001) depicts Bavaria as a region largely predominated by the European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Analyses of climatope, hygrotope and trophotope of fir-dominated regional natural units make evident that the reasons for the preponderance of the European silver fir (Abies alba) are edaphic. In terms of regeneration vigour, growth and yield the fir particularly dominates in habitats with a combination of humus cover, acid-oligotrophic topsoils and clayey or waterlogged subsoils, where the beech usually exhibits stunted and malformed growth forms. This ecological preference has the effect that Bavarian Abies alba-forests are restricted to small patches within a matrix of potential natural vegetation formed by mixed deciduous-coniferous mountain forests. Within European NATURA 2000 areas Abies-forests should be recorded carefully as special habitats. Their transitional character between temperate beech forests (habitat type 9130) and boreal spruce forests (habitat type 9410), the ecological preference of Abies alba as an endangered tree species and their sensitivity against environmental stressors, including changes in forest structure, air quality, and climate, make them important objects for nature conservation.

>> Vollextversion (pdf 1.9M; Heft 2-Aufsatz 7; Original paper; Language: English)

Heft 2 Naturnähe-Indikatoren und Naturwaldreservatsforschung Seite 90-105 Oktober 2005

GOSSNER, M.: The importance of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in comparison to spruce (Picea abies (Matt.) Liebl.) and oak (Quercus petraea (L.) Karst.) for arboreal Heteroptera communities in Bavarian forests

(Die Bedeutung der Weißtanne (Abies alba Mill.) im Vergleich zur Fichte (Picea abies (Matt.) Liebl.) und Eiche (Quercus petraea (L.) Karst.) für arborikole Wanzen-Zönosen in bayerischen Wäldern)

Heteropteran communities in the canopies of Silver fir (Abies alba) and spruce (Picea abies) were studied at three lowland and three mountainous sites throughout Bavaria using flight-interception traps. At one lowland site sampling was extended to oak (Quercus petraea). A significantly higher number of species and specimens occurred on fir when compared to spruce. Including all sampled species, numbers on fir were even higher than on oak. Excluding tourists, oak was most species rich. Results demonstrate that fir, spruce, and oak harbour distinct communities. While specific communities including several rare species (e.g. Actinonotus pulcher, Psallus punctulatus) were found on fir, mainly generalists were found on spruce. Pinalitus atomarius, Cremnocephalus alpestris, Phoenicocoris dissimilis and Orius minutus significantly preferred fir. Therefore, with an increased cultivation of fir in lieu of spruce, an increase in Heteropteran diversity can be expected.

>> Vollextversion (pdf 300K; Original paper; Heft 2-Aufsatz 8; Language: English)

Heft 2 Naturnähe-Indikatoren und Naturwaldreservatsforschung Seite 106-113 Oktober 2005

MÜLLER, J., BUSSLER, H., BENSE, U., BRUSTEL, H., FLECHTNER, G., FOWLES, A., KAHLEN, M., MÖLLER, G., MÜHLE, H., SCHMIDL, J., ZABRANSKY, P.: Urwald relict species - Saproxylic beetles indicating structural qualities and habitat tradition

(Urwaldrelikt-Arten - Xylobionte Käfer als Indikatoren für Strukturqualität und Habitattradition)

On the basis of the list of saproxylic beetles of Germany, the authors present a definition and list of "Urwald relict species", comprising 115 beetles that are considered to be associated with primeval forest ("Urwald") structures and features. We use the term "habitat tradition" to describe a continuity in supply of old growth dead wood and forest structures. The selection of species is made on behalf of the following criteria: relict records in Central Europe; attachment to continuity of deadwood resources and habitat tradition; continuity of old growth stand features like tree and deadwood maturity and diversity; absence from cultivated Central European forest.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 1M; Heft 2-Aufsatz 9; Original paper; Language: Deutsch / English)

Heft 2 Kombinierte Methoden aus Modellierung, Messung und Geländearbeit Seite 114-125 Oktober 2005

BINNER S., EWALD, J., ROGG, S.: Die ökologische Interpretation geologischer Karten mit Hilfe der Datenbank bayerischer Bergwälder und terrestrisch kartierter Standortskarten

(Ecological interpretation of geological maps based on the databank of bavarian mountain forests and field-mapped site maps)

The European Natura 2000 network requires management plans for large protected areas. The delimitation of annex I habitat types poses a major challenge for the Bavarian forest administration. A large proportion of the protected area lies in mountain forests of the Alps, where only limited ecological information is available and ground mapping would be extremely costly. To solve this and other tasks in managing and monitoring remote areas, the university of Applied Sciences Weihenstephan in cooperation with the Bavarian state institute for forestry establishes an ecological information system that links phytosociological relevé data (ca. 5,000 plots), species attributes (e. g. ELLENBERG indicator values for soil reaction), and digital map layers of groundmapped site types, geology and elevation. The coincidence between community attributes and physiographic geodata will be used to calibrate a model of those units of potential natural vegetation that form annex I habitat types. The approach is exemplified by an analysis of geological mapping units, which were classified according to their significance for soil nutrient supply, as indicated by the coincidence with classified relevés and mapped vegetation types. This calibration allows to predict the nutrient supply for 85 % of the Bavarian Alps. The model will be improved by predicting ecological properties of mixed pleistocene sediments (moraines, gravel) by making assumptions about their origin. The habitat modelling will be refined by taking elevation and relief into account. This project is sponsored by the Bavarian state forestry department.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 975K; Heft 2-Aufsatz 10; Original paper; Language: Deutsch)

Heft 2 Kombinierte Methoden aus Modellierung, Messung und Geländearbeit Seite 126-135 Oktober 2005

FÖRSTER, M., KLEINSCHMIT, B., WALENTOWSKI, H.: Comparison of three modelling approaches of potential natural forest habitats in Bavaria, Germany

(Vergleich von drei Modellierungsansätzen zu potenziellen Vorkommen von FFH-Wald-Lebensraumtypen in Bayern (Deutschland))

In the context of the EU Habitats Directive, which contains the obligation of environmental monitoring, nature conservation authorities face a growing demand for effective and competitive methods to survey protected habitats. Therefore the presented research study compared three modelling approaches (rule-based method with applied Bavarian woodland types, multivariate technique of cluster analysis, and a fuzzy logic approach) for the purpose of detecting potential habitat types. The results can be combined with earth observation data of different geometric resolution (ASTER, SPOT5, aerial photographs or very high resolution satellite data) in order to determine actual forest habitat types. This was carried out at two test sites, situated in the pre-alpine area in Bavaria (southern Germany). The results were subsequently compared to the terrestrial mapped habitat areas of the NATURA 2000 management plans. First results show that these techniques are a valuable support in mapping and monitoring NATURA 2000 forest habitats.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 2.6M; Heft 2-Aufsatz 11; Original paper; Language: English)