Issue/Heft 10 (2010)

© AFSV; Waldökologie, Landschaftsforschung und Naturschutz (Forest Ecology, Landscape Research and Nature Conservation) - Heft 10, 2010

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Impressum und Inhaltsverzeichnis

>> Impressum und Inhaltsangabe (pdf 669 K)

Heft 10 Ökosystemrenaturierung und nachhaltiges Management Seite 5-6 Oktober 2010

LÜDERITZ, V., ZERBE, S., JÜPNER; R., AREVALO, J. R.: Ecosystem restoration and sustainable management of rivers and wetlands – Introduction to the special issue

(Ökosystemrenaturierung und nachhaltiges Management von Flüssen und Feuchtgebieten – Einführung in den Sonderband)

The restoration of ecosystems has become a major challenge throughout the world in the 21st century (see comprehensive surveys from, e. g. TEMPERTON et al. 2004, van ANDEL & ARONSON 2006, WALKER et al. 2007, and ZERBE & WIEGLEB 2009). Due to non-sustainable land use and inefficient use of natural resources, many ecosystems have been degraded or completely destroyed. Consequently, the functioning of ecosystems has been severely affected and many ecosystem services have been lost.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 606 K; Heft 10-Aufsatz 1; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de: 0041-afsv-01017)

Heft 10 Ökosystemrenaturierung und nachhaltiges Management Seite 7-15 Oktober 2010

MANN, S, TISCHEW, S.: Role of megaherbivores in restoration of species-rich grasslands on former arable land in floodplains

(Bedeutung der Megaherbivoren-Beweidung für die Renaturierung artenreicher Feuchtgrünländer auf ehemaligen Ackerflächen)

Species-rich wet grasslands in floodplains are on focus of European nature conservation policy. However, since the seventies of the last century large areas with grasslands in floodplains have been meliorated, ploughed and used for intensive cropping in Germany. Therefore, restoration strategies for large-scale conversion of former arable land into species-rich grasslands and integration into a long-term sustainable land use regime are needed. Dealing with large areas in restoration projects causes high costs which often exceed the possibilities of NGO's or other stakeholders. Aiming to develop and implement new cost-efficient strategies for restoration and long-term management of wetlands on former arable land local NGO's and the Anhalt University of Applied Sciences started a co-operation within a project in a heavily degraded floodplain in the Elbe river valley. Up to now, more than 40 ha former arable land was successively bought and immediately grazed by large herbivores (Heck-cattle and Przewalski-horses). The local farmers apply a year-round grazing regime without additional feeding and low stocking density. Scientific evaluation of the project progress and experiments with different re-vegetation variants (natural recovery, hay transfer, seeding of commercial seed mixture) revealed the following results: (1) on former arable land immediate grazing with large herbivores without additional feeding is possible and leads to a successive development of typical grassland communities with low nutrient status, (2) integration of old pastures into the grazing system enhances colonization of native grassland species alongside animal tracks, (3) seeding of a commercial seed mixture impedes the colonization of native grassland species, (4) transfer of species-rich hay accelerates the colonization rate of several grassland species, and (5) highest cover of target species was found on regularly wet sites. Therefore, we conclude that grazing with large herbivores proved to be successful in converting former arable land into species-rich grasslands. Nevertheless, rising of the groundwater table is most important for further development of species-rich wet grasslands in the Wulfener Bruch.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 2.4 M; Heft 10-Aufsatz 2; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01028)

Heft 10 Ökosystemrenaturierung und nachhaltiges Management Seite 17-22 Oktober 2010

WIEGLEB, G, KRAWCZYNSKI, R.: Biodiversity Management by Water Buffalos in Restored Wetlands

(Biodiversitätsmanagement mit Wasserbüffeln in renaturierten Feuchtgebieten)

The use of water buffalos for landscape maintenance started ten years ago in Germany. Now, more than 2,100 buffalos are kept by about 90 breeders, and first results concerning their usefulness for landscape management are available. Buffalos are mainly used on particularly wet sites which cannot be grazed by cattle or other domestic animals. Although grazing of wetlands, river banks and water bodies is still controversial, early results from literature and our own research clearly indicate the beneficial impact of moderate grazing on such sites for birds, amphibians, vegetation and insects. This paper presents a short literature review and the first results of the BUBALUS project at Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU) and general experience from other projects.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.5 M; Heft 10-Aufsatz 3; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01039)

Heft 10 Ökosystemrenaturierung und nachhaltiges Management Seite 23-29 Oktober 2010

LANGHEINRICH, U., BRAUMANN, F. LÜDERITZ, V.: Niedermoor- und Gewässerrenaturierung im Naturpark Drömling (Sachsen-Anhalt)

(Restoration of fen and waterbodies in the Drömling Natural Park (Saxony-Anhalt))

The Drömling Natural Park is the largest fen area in Central Germany. The management and development plan defines the re-wetting of fens, the preservation and development of extensively used wetlands and the improvement of the ecological status of water bodies as the main aims. In 11 areas, re-wetting already started or will start in the near future. Habitat quality of canals and ditches was enhanced by building shallow water zones and careful management. Function of canals and ditches changes stepwise from drainage to irrigation. Furthermore, new shallow ponds were created. This contribution presents examples for implementation of measures and first results of scientific evaluation. All the measures help to maintain and enhance aquatic and amphibic biodiversity and conservation value. A high total number of species correlates well with the occurrence of endangered species. 50 of such Red Lists species were found among aquatic macroinvertebrates and 20 among aquatic macrophytes. These values are above average compared to other fens in Germany. However, the maintenance of diverse landscape and water body structure demands high management efforts. A rising problem for native diversity is the appearance of invasive neozoons.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 3.2 M; Heft 10-Aufsatz 4; Original paper; Language: Deutsch; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01042)

Heft 10 Ökosystemrenaturierung und nachhaltiges Management Seite 31-39 Oktober 2010

FREY, W., HAUPTLORENZ, H., SCHINDLER, H., KOEHLER, G.: Assessment and restoration of artificial ponds in the Palatinate Forest

(Bewertung und Entwicklung künstlicher Stehgewässer im Biosphärenreservat Pfälzerwald)

The survival of the approximately 1,000 artificial ponds in the Pfälzerwald (Palatinate Forest) biosphere reserve is endangered as they continue to be abandoned, but a large number of them have conservation and historical value. An overall management concept is needed as the high costs for restoration and the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive regarding river continuity will make it impossible to maintain all of the ponds. Most of the ponds are migration barriers for fish and aquatic invertebrates. The assessment methods presented here are based on readily available data for the evaluation of the ecological and cultural-historical importance of the ponds, their implications within the landscape, and their (often negative) impact on stream ecology. The assessment of the condition of the ponds' manmade structures leads to conclusions about the urgency for action. The assessment classes are linked with recommendations for action. In the synopsis of all assessments, management concepts emerge for the individual ponds, and priority lists of ponds can be generated that point out where actions are preferential.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 4.8 M; Heft 10-Aufsatz 5; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01050)

Heft 10 Ökosystemrenaturierung und nachhaltiges Management Seite 41-56 Oktober 2010

BRAUKMANN, U., RUPP, B., HAASS, W., STEIN, U., SCHÜTTE, A.: Restoration of some small loess streams – a contribution of organic farming to nature conservation and management

(Renaturierung kleiner Lössbäche – ein Beitrag der Ökologischen Landwirtschaft zum Naturschutz)

As a part of the interdisciplinary research project "Integration of nature protection goals with organic farming: an the example from the Hessian "state domain" [Staatsdomäne] area Frankenhausen", different restoration measures have been carried out within this site, 15 km north of Kassel. Since 1998, intensive conventional agricultural practices have been substituted with organic farming here. One intention of the agricultural restructuring was to realise nature protection goals in cooperation with sustainable organic agricultural production. The hydrologic portion of the project addresses both the implementation of restoration measures in rivers and streams and their scientific monitoring. Starting in July 2007, several restoration measures were carried out in the hydrologic systems of the Jungfernbach and Esse streams within the Frankenhausen site. Both systems are formed by typical loess streams (catchment size about 9 km2) which had been heavily degraded for several hundred years by intensive agriculture. The most important restoration measures were removal of a piped section of a tributary of the Jungfernbach at Totenhof, restoration of biological passability by removal of weirs and substitution of narrow pipes under farm paths, relocation of a section of the Jungfernbach from the edge of the floodplain to its original location in the centre, widening of narrow sections and partial raising of the deepened stream bed by means of rough ramps (stone bars) and racks made of oak wood or iron. These physical restoration measures were accompanied by a scientific monitoring programme comprising morphological, hydrochemical and biological (aquatic macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates, fish and amphibians) aspects. The aim of this study was to document the original ecological conditions, the restoration measures and the early ecological effects on the stream sections for the first six months following restoration as a basis for further ecological monitoring. The restoration measures effected clear morphological changes in cross-section and passability. The chemical condition of the streams showed slight changes in some aspects following the restoration, e. g. a reduction of phosphorus, magnesium and potassium concentration. Other than macrophytic algae in the newly shaped sections, aquatic macrophytes did not develop over the winter season before the end of the monitoring phase in April 2008. Within the newly shaped stream sections of a small tributary and of the Jungfernbach, up to 14 aquatic macroinvertebrate taxa started to colonise the new habitats 6 months after restoration. Fish fauna were very poorly represented in the streams and included only a few specimens of brown trout (Salmo trutta). This did not change markedly after restoration, possibly due to the isolation of the population caused by impassable weirs downstream of the investigation area.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 8.0 M; Heft 10-Aufsatz 6; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01064)

Heft 10 Ökosystemrenaturierung und nachhaltiges Management Seite 57-65 Oktober 2010

TRÖSTLER, I., LÜDERITZ, V. GERSBERG, R. M.: Investigations towards the restoration of wetlands in the Tijuana Estuary with special regard to brackish and saline ponds

(Untersuchungen zur Renaturierung von Feuchtgebieten im Tijuana Ästuar unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von brackwasserhaltigen und salinen Teichen)

This study represents the first comprehensive biological and hydrochemical investigation of small coastal ponds in the saltmarsh dominated Tijuana Estuary, southern California (U.S.). Special attention is given to the brackish water biotopes. Different salinities and considerable fluctuations in water level characterized these shallow ponds and restrict the biological settlement. Fluctuations of salinities ranged from brackish water to hyperhaline water conditions. Due to different salinity levels, the ponds vary in hydrochemistry, macroinvertebrate species composition and plant communities. The macroinvertebrate community of the brackish waters were dominated by Gastropoda, Odonata, and Coleoptera containing a mixture of freshwater/brackish water species and marine macroinvertebrates. Typical plants of the brackish habitat were Typha domingensis (Southern cattail), and Scirpus californicus (California bulrush) associated with Juncus acutus (Siny rush). These brackish habitats with a wide range of salinity fluctuations are sparsely colonized but represent a niche for typical highly adaptable species. Especially, it is a biotope for species with a wide range of salt tolerance. Therefore, endangered species occurred besides introduced or invasive species in the ponds of the Tijuana Estuary. This fact has to be taken into account in case of wetland restoration. Due to the freshwater influence, the restoration of brackish habitats focuses on the problem of invasive species.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.2 M; Heft 10-Aufsatz 7; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01075)

Heft 10 Ökosystemrenaturierung und nachhaltiges Management Seite 67-75 Oktober 2010

LÜDERITZ, V., LANGENHEINRICH, U., AREVALO, J. R. JÜPNER, R., FERNANDEZ, A.: Ecological assessment of streams on La Gomera and Tenerife (Spain) – an approach for an evaluation and restoration tool based on the EU-Water Framework Directive

(Ökologische Bewertung von Bächen auf La Gomera und Teneriffa (Spanien) – Ein methodischer Ansatz zur Einschätzung von Renaturierungsmaßnahmen bei der Umsetzung der EU-Wasserrahmenrichtlinie)

In recent decades, the number of streams on the Canary Islands has decreased dramatically due to the non-sustainable consumption of water for agriculture and tourism. Natural reaches of streams with an endemic macroinvertebrate fauna do, however, still exist in protected areas of Tenerife and La Gomera. Those reaches serve as a reference to develop an assessment method for streams on islands. This method takes into account common parameters such as water quality and hydromorphology, while emphasizing biodiversity and endemism. The latter concepts as they relate to stream conservation are important in both nature conservation and protection of species as many endemic aquatic organisms are endangered.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.5 M; Heft 10-Aufsatz 8; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01087)

Heft 10 Ökosystemrenaturierung und nachhaltiges Management Seite 77-84 Oktober 201

ETTMER, B., ALVARADO-ANCIETA, C. A.: Morphological development of the Ucayali River, Peru without human impacts

(Morphologische Entwicklung des Ucayali in Peru ohne menschliche Einflüsse)

The Ucayali River originates in the high Andean Mountains near the city of Cusco in Peru. After about 1,600 km, it joins with the Marañón River. Both the Ucayali River and the Marañón River are sources of the Amazon. From 2001 to 2005, the Ministry of Transport and Communication of Peru funded a study to determine the navigability of the Ucayali River. In the process, an extensive data set was acquired including hydrological and sedimentological data as well as a comprehensive topographical survey of the riverbed. Since the Ucayali River has experienced no stream channel modification in the past, the available data provide information about the flow pattern for a natural stream and insight into a reference ecosystem. This paper offers the first analysis of the available data and a sediment transport calculation for the Ucayali River.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 2.3 M; Heft 10-Aufsatz 9; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-01091)

Heft 10 Ökosystemrenaturierung und nachhaltiges Management Seite 85-89 Oktober 2010

ZERBE, S., THEVS, N., KÜHNEL, E.: Vegetation, ecosystem dynamics, and restoration of floodplains in Central Asia – the Tarim River (Xinjiang, NW China) as an example

(Vegetation, Ökosystemdynamik und Renaturierung von zentralasiatischen Flussauen am Beispiel des Tarim in Xinjiang, NW-China)

Naturally, the floodplains of Central Asian rivers harbor riparian, so-called 'Tugai' forests, reeds with Phragmites australis, and shrub communities which form a mosaic depending on the variety of available ground water. In recent decades, these natural ecosystems have been strongly altered anthropogenically or even completely destroyed. In order to restore those ecosystems, knowledge on vegetation, ecosystem dynamics, and natural regeneration processes is essential. In our study, we present results of ecological investigations at the Tarim River. We gathered comprehensive data on soil, vegetation, forest stand age, tree vitality, river course dynamics, and land use and brought it to the landscape level. Thus, recommendations are derived for the maintenance of these floodplain ecosystems, in particular with regard to their biological diversity.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 1.7 M; Heft 10-Aufsatz 10; Original paper; Language: English; urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-10102)