Issue/Heft 1 (2004)

© AFSV; Waldökologie-Online - Heft 1, 2004 (urn:nbn:de:0041-afsv-00017)
Impressum und Inhaltsverzeichnis

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Heft 1 Forstliche Standorts- und Vegetationskunde Seite 4-6 September 2004

GOTTSCHLING, H.: Zur Anwendung der Naturraumerkundung im Tienschan, Kirgisistan

(Landscape survey in the Tienshan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan)

Landscape survey as described by KOPP et al. 1982 is a convenient methodology for analyzing the relationship between geo-structural qualities of sites (climate, relief, soil, soil water), vegetation and land use. The method has previously mainly been used in Central Europe. Experiences gathered while applying the method under the conditions of Tienshan Mountains are discussed. In the Tienshan, the climatic and ecological conditions vary within short distances because of the mountainous environment, particularly with altitude and the exposition of slopes. A sharp ecological transition can be observed between north slopes, with spruce forest (Picea schrenkiana) on dystric cambisol and south slopes, with steppe on calcic chernosem. An important principle of the described method is a coordinated classification of climate, soil, relief, soil water and vegetation. The classification units are linked to "landscape forms" in topic dimension and the "landscape mosaics" in choric dimension, which characterise the heterogeneity of the mosaics. Another principle of the method is the distinction of basic natural qualities of the site and the qualities of its present condition, which may have been changed. The comparison of basic qualities of geo-structured sites allows the identification of the natural vegetation on chosen sites. This can be used, for example, to identify well adapted sites for afforestation of pasture land.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 410 K; Heft 1-Aufsatz 1; Original paper; Language: Deutsch)

Heft 1 Forstliche Standorts- und Vegetationskunde Seite 7-10 September 2004

KONOPATZKY, A.: Erkundung der Standortszustände im Rahmen forstlicher Kartierungen und des Monitorings als Zweig der forstlichen Standorts- und Naturraumerkundung

(Diagnosis of labile forest site conditions in context with forest mapping and monitoring as an objective of landscape survey)

The paper summarizes the most common methods of direct or indirect mapping of unstable forest site conditions and its possible utilisation. The demand for the characterization of site conditions is related to the extent that actual conditions differ from the long-term natural site potential. The mapping of actual site conditions is also suitable for condition monitoring. The procedure for the mapping of humus form should increasingly consider geobotanical features, without limiting the representation to a chemically oriented description of upper soil conditions.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 142 K; Heft 1-Aufsatz 2; Original paper; Language: Deutsch)

Heft 1 Forstliche Standorts- und Vegetationskunde Seite 11-24 September 2004

KOPP, D.: Vorschlag für eine Rahmenklassifikation der Waldstandorte Deutschlands nach Ökotopgruppen

(Proposal for a national classification of forest sites in Germany according to ecotope groups)

Site survey in Germany became widespread after the Second World War. The West German states of the former Federal Republic developed state-specific procedures - in accordance with the sovereignty of each forest administration. A national working group for site mapping was founded in 1953. However, this working group only pursued the goal of co-ordinating the determination procedures. It was not authorized to fundamentally revise the procedures - whether focussed on the site, the vegetation, or on an equally important combination of both. Hence at national level, no unified framework of classification exists. The procedures of the individual states of the Federal Republic are documented in the manual of forest site survey, which appeared in 5 editions between 1958 and 1996. At least in East Germany, a uniform procedure had already been developed, implicating only a few not completely resolved differences between lowlands, hills and mountainous landscape. Its procedures differ however from those used in West Germany. With respect to description of forest site and soil systematics only, co-operation took place until the end of the 1950's. With the increasing importance of national and European evaluations, e.g. in recent times the inventory of soil condition, the calls for a comparable basis of survey at federal level became ever louder. Research and development on the state-specific procedures is advanced or partly complete, only the search for a national framework of classification remains. As a final step, all regional classifications should be integrated in this framework. Ecotope groups recommend themselves as objective units for such a framework of classification. Ecotope groups are equally effective for research on forest vegetation, reflecting the same combination of trophotope, hygrotope and climatope. The groups should mostly reflect natural characteristics.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 445 K; Heft 1-Aufsatz 3; Original paper; Language: Deutsch)

Heft 1 Naturnähe und Biodiversität Seite 25-28 September 2004

GRANKE, O., SCHMIEDINGER, A., WALENTOWSKI, H.: Konzept und Schlüsselkriterien für die Bewertung der Biodiversität von Wald-Lebensräumen in Deutschland

(Concept and key criteria for evaluation of biodiversity of forest habitats in Germany)

Biodiversity is currently an important issue for the EC (see Agenda 21, habitats directive). However, by which means can this be measured? First of all, the evaluation requires a concept of hierarchical natural units (WHITTAKER 1972, 1977, BEIERKUHNLEIN 2003), filled with ecologically significant and easily recordable key criteria. In order to ensure the meaningful application of the theoretical term to nature protection, qualitative restrictions are required as well: not the maximum of biodiversity, but the regionally characteristic and the individually distinctive biodiversity should be the objective of conservation.

>> Volltextversion (pdf 221 K; Heft 1-Aufsatz 4; Original paper; Language: Deutsch)

Heft 1 Naturnähe und Biodiversität Seite 29-56 September 2004

ENGELHARD, J., REIF, A.: Veränderungen der Bodenvegetation durch Fichtenanbau auf Standorten des Kalkbuchenwaldes

(Effects of Norway spruce cultivation on the ground vegetation of beech forest sites on limestone)

Spruce forests are frequently thought of as species poor and associated with the suppression of natural forest species, in other words a loss of biodiversity. The effect of varying degrees of spruce admixture on the ground vegetation is the theme of this study. Research was carried out in 50-90 year old pure beech and spruce stands, as well as variously mixed stands in the central "Schwäbische Alb". Few species appear to be strictly tied to pure beech stands. To preserve these species, pure beech forest should be maintained at least in some stands of managed forests. However, the majority of the beech forest species can also be found in spruce stands. Under spruce, the species number increases considerably, because many open land species can be found. Their occurrence can be explained by the higher light intensities under spruce canopies. The increased number of species under spruce canopies does not necessarily mean a higher value for nature conservation. Other criteria like naturalness or rarity, must be taken into consideration. A few rare species were found to be associated with pure spruce canopies. Therefore, the conversion of all pure spruce stands to mixed stands would result in a loss of rare species well worth conservation.

>> Vollextversion (pdf 1.295 K; Heft 1-Aufsatz 5; Original paper; Language: Deutsch)